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Temporary structures

Various temporary structures are often built for public events, such as stands, tents or stages. The temporary structures built for public events must be presented in the event’s emergency plan. A mounting certificate is usually written for large or non-standard structures, and it must be available at the venue. Temporary structures and constructs may require a building or operating permit. Building and operating permits are issued by the municipal building control authority.

With regard to tents, the following factors should be taken into account:

  • The number of people in a tent is calculated the same way as the number of people in assembly facilities (see section: Number of people).
  • The tent fabric is flammability class 1 (fire retardant SL1, DIN4102 B1 or similar).
  • There are at least 2 exit routes out of the tent, the width of which has been determined on the same basis as for assembly facilities (see section Evacuation arrangements).
  • The emergency exits of the tent are equipped with signs. (Instructions: In small tents, exit routes can be marked with photoluminescent exit signs. Large tents that are over 300 m2 are equipped with battery-secured exit route signs and lighting. If over 30% of the tent’s wall surface is open, it can be categorized as a canopy or an open structure, in which case the requirements for signs are decided upon case-specifically.)
  • The tent is placed far enough from buildings. (Instructions: Individual tents of less than 20 m2 are generally located at least 4 meters from the buildings. The distance between larger tents and groups of tents from the building is generally at least 8 meters.)
  • The emergency access roads and the emergency exits of nearby buildings have been taken into account when setting up the tent. Emergency access roads with a width of at least 3.5 meters are reserved for the tent area.
  • The tent manufacturer’s set up instructions are followed.
  • The tent is sturdily attached to its base with, for example, concrete or water weights, following the manufacturer’s instructions. (Instructions: If there are no special instructions or orders given by the municipal building control authority or there are no instructions available for mooring from the manufacturer or designer, the following is recommended for setting up tents up to 300 m2:
    • Frame parts are connected to each other with lockable fasteners.
    • The stabilization of the tent is affected by, among other things, the structure, height and shape of the tent. When loose weights are used, each corner of the small tents shall have at least the following weights: 2 x 2 tents 15 kg / pole; 4 x 4 tents 62 kg / pole; 5 x 5 tents 96 kg / pole; and 6 x 6 tents 139 kg / pole. Minimum weights apply to tents with a roof tarpaulin and a wind speed of 15 m / s or less. In stronger winds, the roof tarpaulin must be removed or weights must be added.
    • The tents are secured to ground anchors or loose weights with cargo straps with a tensile strength of at least 1000 kg. Ropes or other similar strings are not reliable attachments.
    • Tents attached in accordance with these instructions may not remain attached in the event of severe weather. Therefore, in the event of severe weather, the operating instructions drawn up in the emergency plan and the monitoring of weather conditions must be followed.)
    • In the event of severe weather or winds of more than 15 m / s, the tent mooring will be intensified or the use of the tents will be suspended. People are directed away from the vicinity of the tents and the tents are dismantled if possible. If the manufacturer has given other instructions, they will be followed.

With regard to stage/stages, the following factors should be taken into account:

  • The stage manufacturer’s setup instructions are followed and a setup certificate of the setup is drawn up. The stage is used in accordance with the intended use specified by the manufacturer. The weight and wind restrictions of the stage structures are known.
  • Weather conditions have been taken into account. Operational models for various weather phenomena, such as a severe weather will be planned.

 With regard to bleachers/auditoriums, the following factors should be taken into account:

The bleacher is built in accordance with Decree of the Ministry of the Environment on Safety of use of buildings (1007/2017):

  • A handrail is built when the falling height exceeds 500 mm or when there is a risk of falling or stumbling. A fall protection rail is built in level differences of more than 0.7 meters, to which children have access.
  • The seats are attached to their base, if the floor of the seating area is inclined or if there is a height difference between the floors of seating rows. Loose seats can be used in premises with an even floor.
  • If there are over 60 chairs in the premises, they should be attached to each other in groups of four unless they have been placed around tables.
  • The width of the bleacher's route (s) is calculated on the basis of the number of people evacuating through the route (see section: Number of people). The passage way of an assembly space area of not more than 60 persons shall be at least 900 mm wide. In a space that is meant for more than 60 persons the passageway must be at least 1200 mm wide.
  • The free width between the seating rows is sufficient in relation to the number of people using the passage, the type of the seats and whether or not there is a passageway on the both ends of the bleacher or just the other. The free width between the seating rows, in relation to the type of the seats and the number of seats in the row, is planned in accordance with the section 24 table 1 of the Decree of the Ministry of the Environment on Safety of use of Buildings (1007/2017).
  • The rise of the stairs in the bleacher’s passages is a maximum of 160 mm and the advance is at least 300 mm.
  • The gaps between the open steps of the bleacher’s stairs must be blocked so that a cube over 100 mm in size cannot fit through the gaps.
  • In stairs and slopes, the handrail is installed for the whole length. The size of the handrail measured to enable a sturdy handhold.

The bleacher manufacturer’s setup instructions are followed.