Soil and bedrock
Finland is located on the Fennoscandian Shield, in which Precambrian bedrock has been exposed from under younger rock. Finland’s bedrock is extremely old and stable. However, the soil layers on top of the bedrock are geologically speaking very young.
The Earth’s crust consists of soil and bedrock. Soil layers are on top of the bedrock. The formation of soil layers in Helsinki, as well as soil layers of most of Finland, was affected by the progress and melting of glaciers in the latest Ice Age, the structure and composition of the bedrock, and the evolution of the Baltic Sea.
Helsinki is characterized by the typical geological features of the southern Finnish coastal areas: there is an abundance of rocky hills partially covered by thin layers of moraine, and there are valleys and flat terrain in which the top soil consists of clay or silt.
Helsinki residents can learn about the Helsinki soil and bedrock with the help of the free-of-charge Soili map service, which contains soil and bedrock maps as well as information about ground water.
Professional designers and engineers are supported in construction projects by a Soili service against a fee. The service provides all available soil and bedrock investigation information at construction sites.